The anticoagulant nafamostat potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro: an existing drug with multiple possible therapeutic effects
Yamamoto, Mizuki et al.
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Although infection by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, is spreading rapidly worldwide, no drug has been shown to be sufficiently effective for treating COVID-19. We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked MERS-CoV S protein-initiated cell fusion by targeting TMPRSS2, and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells. Here we established a quantitative fusion assay dependent on SARS-CoV-2 S protein, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and found that nafamostat mesylate potently inhibited the fusion while camostat mesylate was about 10-fold less active. Furthermore, nafamostat mesylate blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection of Calu-3 cells with an EC50 around 10 nM, which is below its average blood concentration after intravenous administration through continuous infusion. These findings, together with accumulated clinical data regarding its safety, make nafamostat a likely candidate drug to treat COVID-19.